Non-metallic inclusions have been one of the most important concerns in iron and steelmaking for past several decades. It is well known that non-metallic inclusions existing in the final product generally degrade the quality especially, mechanical properties of the product. Even though there have been few suggestions to utilize
The role of non-metallic inclusions in steel is determined by their quality, distribution, and size, and by the quality of steel and the type of load applied to the final product during use. The impact of non-metallic inclusions on steel properties begins in microareas, and it spreads to the macroscopic scale [7,13,13,14].(plate)
Aug 13, 2019Brittle nonmetallic inclusions are the main causes of bulge and inner fold defects. Microcracks are formed owing to relative sliding between the inclusions and the metal matrix during the rolling process, and further extension of these microcracks then leads to the creation of bulge defects under sizing stress.(plate) Author Gong Cheng, Lifeng Zhang, Ying Ren, Wen Yang, Xiaolei Zhao, Guocheng WangPublish Year 2021(PDF) Oxygen transport behavior and characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(steel) The oxygen transport behavior and characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions during electroslag remelting (ESR) under vacuum condition were investigated by comparison with ESR
Aug 11, 2020Abstract. In the current study, industrial trials are performed to investigate the effect of argon stirring conditions on nonmetallic inclusions of a bearing steel during vacuum degassing (VD). Three argon stirring modes, including strong stirring, moderate stirring, and weak stirring during the last 10 min of the highvacuum period, are compared. The removal fraction (plate) Author Max A. KaplanEstimated Reading Time 8 minsPublish Year 2014CN102213654A - Electrolytic extraction and detection nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(steel) The invention relates to an electrolytic extraction and detection method of nonmetallic inclusion in steel by utilizing an organic solution. The method comprises the following process steps (1) preparing electrolyte; (2) preparing and electrolyzing a steel sample soaking the steel sample containing the inclusion into the electrolyte in an electrolytic cell; arranging a salt bath beside
Aug 11, 2020In the current study, industrial trials are performed to investigate the effect of argon stirring conditions on nonmetallic inclusions of a bearing steel during vacuum degassing (VD). Three argon stirring modes, including strong stirring, moderate stirring, and weak stirring during the last 10 min of the highvacuum period, are compared.(plate) Author Xiao-yong Gao, Lin Zhang, Xuan-hui Qu, Xiao-wei Chen, Yi-feng LuanPublish Year 2020Characterization of oxide bifilms and nonmetallic nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(steel) Oxide bifilms are a proposed casting inclusion reported to have been observed in vacuum investment cast polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys. This investigation seeks to determine if current superalloy casting methods can result in the formation of oxide bifilms, and subsequently if it is possible to observe and characterize this phenomenon. The effect of casting atmosphere,
page 1 characterization of oxide bifilms and nonmetallic inclusions in investment cast superalloy in100 by max a. kaplan a dissertation presented to the graduate school of the university of florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of (plate) Characterization of Solidification Microstructures in nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(steel) Apr 15, 2019The macro- and microstructures, chemical compositions, microsegregations, and nonmetallic inclusion characteristics at different positions of the as-cast IN718 ingots produced by a laboratory-scale electroslag remelting (ESR) furnace under four remelting currents (150, 200, 250, and 300 A) were compared and investigated comprehensively.
The hard inclusions lead to wire breakages during the cutting of the ingot in wafers. The main kinds of inclusions found in solar grade silicon have been investigated using vacuum filtration needle-like Si3N4 and lumpy SiC inclusions. Clusters of SiC inclusions (plate) Cited by 2Publish Year 2020Author Xiaoyong Gao, Lin Zhang, Xuanhui Qu, Yifeng Luan, Xiaowei ChenInclusions and Laminations - Rolled Alloys, Inc.(steel) Non-metallic inclusions within the typical size distribution are difficult to detect through non-destructive testing (NDT). They are often too small to be identified using ultrasonic inspection and since they are so small they have no harmful effects.
formation of inclusions that affect the superalloy performance. Therefore, the effects of hot working on inclusions in a superalloy must be studied. GH4738 superalloy was manufactured, herein, by vacuum induction melting and vacuum arc remelting. Hot working was performed by unidirectional drawing,(plate) Cited by 4Publish Year 2008Author Lifeng Zhang, Eivind Ovrelid, Senanu, Benjamin Agyei-Tuffour, Adegboyega Nathaniel FemiSelection Rolling-Element Bearing Steels for Long-Life nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(steel) In addition to inclusions, material defects such as One method for increasing rolling-element reliability and load capacity is to eliminate or reduce nonmetallic inclusions, entrapped gases, and trace elements. Improvements in steel-making processing, namely melting in a vacuum, can achieve this. These vacuum-melting techniques include vacuum
stirring after vacuum affects the large inclusions removal in steel melt. The samples for the steel and slag have taken before and after vacuum and after 20 min of soft stirring (before casting).(plate) Deoxidation of steel [SubsTech](steel) May 31, 2012Vacuum deoxidation is used mainly in Ladle refining. Steels deoxidized in vacuum are characterized by homogeneous structure, low content of non-metallic inclusions and low gas porosity. Vacuum treatment is used for manufacturing large steel ingots, rails, ball bearings and other high quality steels.
Non-metallic inclusions may be introduced to liquid steel from the outside, usually with charge material, or they may be produced in the metallurgical process. According to literature, if evenly distributed, non-metallic inclusions may affect the functional properties of steel, mainly its fatigue strength. The aim of this study was to determine the quantity and dimensional structure of non nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(plate) Effect of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Cathodes on Vacuum nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(steel) Jul 01, 1972adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A
The use of TurboSwirl to obtain an improved steel cleanliness during filling of an ingot was numerically studied by VOF and DPM models. It was found that a radius-reduced TurboSwirl or a proper tapered mold entrance nozzle with an adequate developed region for steel flow can reduce the risk of mold flux entrapment in a mold. The ingot casting process can create highly (plate) Effect of interaction of refractories with Ni-based nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(steel) Jan 20, 2020This study documents laboratory-scale observation of the interactions between the Ni-based superalloy FGH4096 and refractories. Three different crucibles were testedMgO, Al 2 O 3 , and MgOspinel. We studied the variations in the compositions of the inclusions and the alloycrucible interface with the reaction time using scanning electron microscopy equipped
of non-metallic inclusions in medium Mn steel. In the present work, industrial and laboratory experi-ments were carried out to study the formation and evolu-tion mechanism of non-metallic inclusions in medium Mn steel. Some steel samples were taken at different stages in industrial refining process to identify the types of inclusions in liquid nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(plate) Inclusions in 304L Stainless Steel during the VOD(steel) Abstract The formation and characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in 304L stainless steel during the vacuum oxygen decarburization (VOD) rening process were investigated using industrial experiments and thermodynamic calculations. The compositional characteristics indicated that two
Jul 01, 2020On the other hand, active elements Al and Ti in superalloys are the root cause of non-metallic inclusions and cannot be completely avoided although raw materials with high purity and secondary refining processes such as vacuum induction melting, electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting are both used.(plate) MODIFICATION OF NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS WITH (steel) cal compositions of the non-metallic inclusions. The total surface area of the non-metallic inclusions is pre-sented in Figure 2. The area of the non-metallic inclu-sions in the unmodified sample is 1492 m2. When REMs are added the non-metallic inclusion area is gradually reduced and reaches a minimum of 376 m2 at 150 ppm REM addition.
The presence of non-metallic inclusions makes it difficult to predict the mechanical properties of castings. The influence of oxidized inclusions on the tensile properties of aluminum alloys, they believe that the main reason for the reduction of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys. Stable and clean aluminum melt has many advantages.(plate) NITROGEN AND NITRIDE NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN(steel) nitride non-metallic inclusion formation are discussed. Five types of the coarse nitride non-metallic inclusions that occur in industrial practice are presented aluminium, boron, niobium, titanium, and zirconium nitrides. Examples of the negative effect of coarse nitrides from case studies are also shown.
Apr 05, 2016Cast samples of 03X18H10 austenitic titanium-free steel are relatively free of nonmetallic inclusions. The nonmetallic phase consists mainly of small inclusions of alumocalcium silicate. In cold-rolled sheet (thickness 1.2 mm), the nonmetallic phase consists of a few very small globules (23 m). The results are compared with the composition of the nonmetallic phase in analogous steel with no vacuum (plate) Small Vacuum Consumable Electrode Arc Furnace-CDOCAST(steel) 3) when the vacuum arc furnace is smelted, the proportion of non-metallic inclusions in the smelting metal is lighter than that of the molten metal. It always floats on the top of the molten metal, which results in the purity of the inner structure of the ingot.
[Show full abstract] induction-furnace, the gas contents and non-metallic inclusion were very little in comparison with the air-melted steel. (2) The austenitizing behaviour of the vacuum-melted nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(plate) Some results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement. For more information, please see here.
Processing of liquid steel by cored wires with calcium fillers removal of nonmetallic Inclusions MELT PROCESS ING IN VACUUM DEGASS ING UNIT Treatment of make-up water to compensate the losses in recirculating circuits in vacuum chamber in (plate) The Development of Free Machining Sintered Metals nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum(steel) including Nonmetallic Materials This paper deals with the lubricating action of nonmetallic inclusions in metal cutting. The purpose of this study is to find the most effective inclusions for metal cutting, and to develop free machining sintered metals including nonmetallic materials. The most effective additives are glass, boron nitride, and talc.
Japan's largest platform for academic e-journals J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies(plate)of nonmetallicinclusions, high-strength steels are tipically remelted under vacuum. Microscopic examination confirms a decrease in nonmetallicinclusionsin the vacuum-remelted steel. Vacuumremelting of steel also permits improved deoxidation.High-Strength Steels for Aerospace Forgings(steel) Was this helpful?People also askHow are nonmetallic inclusions removed from steels and alloys?How are nonmetallic inclusions removed from steels and alloys?The most effective means of removing nonmetallic inclusions from steels and alloys are refining remelting (by the electroslag, vacuum-arc, and electron-beam methods). Such methods are used to produce metals for critical applications.Nonmetallic Inclusions Article about Nonmetallic nonmetallic inclusions in vacuum
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